Tuesday, January 31, 2006


Acheh ( Achem 1682 )
Author : du Val Full Title : Isles de la Sonde Published : 1682 Paris

Acheh ( Achin c.1735-1740 )

Issued London, c.1735 by the Dutch/German cartographer Herman Moll. Moll was an important engraver, geographer and publisher who moved from the Netherlands to London in 1678 and worked there as an engraver to Moses Pitt. In time, he became one of the foremost map publishers in England, engraving maps for such important cartographic

1761, Amsterdam "Vue D'Achem"

Sultan Iskandar Muda

Acheh reached its golden age in the 1600s under Sultan Iskandar Muda. He presided over an unprecedented expansion of territory and involvement in the region's spice trade, which was as vital to the global economy then as oil is today. Acheh expanded over much of Sumatra and parts of the Malay peninsula. Under Iskandar Muda and his successor, Iskandar Thani, Aceh was also a centre of Islamic scholarship and debate

A letter from Iskandar Muda of Acheh to King James I of England, dated 1024 Hijra (1615). This magnificent letter is nearly a metre high, and three quarters of it is devoted to spelling out the glory of the Acehnese Sultan. It is now held in the Bodleian Library, Oxford


368 years ago, Sultan Iskandar Muda left us, but today he alive among us. Today, Achehnese commemorating the death of Sultan Iskandar Muda in December 27, 1636, a national holiday, SULTAN ISKANDAR MUDA DAY. Here, we can read comment from several source of Iskandar Muda: google.dk wrote: “Under the leadership of Sultan Iskandar Muda, Aceh reached its golden era, conquering numerous areas in Sumatra, including Natal Tiku, Pariaman, Nias island and Johor on the Malaka Peninsula. Aceh also launched several offensives against Portugal in Malaka. Although it never truly defeated Portugal, Aceh controlled trade in the straits. Because of his success in expanding Aceh, Sultan Iskandar Muda was often referred to as the Alexander the Great of the East.”

Meanwhile Salam knowledge, wrote: ”Iskandar ascended the throne in 1607 and because of his naval superiority, took control of the northwest Indonesia. He seriously threatened the Portuguese hold of Malaca but was defeated in 1629, by an alliance of Portuguese, Johore and Patoni (now part of Thailand) fleet, near Malaca. Iskandar encouraged scholarship and during his time his capital was a centre of trade and Islamic learning.”

Medan understanding Heritage, wrote: “The famous Sultan Iskandar Muda from Aceh defeated Aru kingdom in Deli Tua ("Old Deli" located southward of the present Medan) in 1612, established the Deli kingdom in 1632, and appointed Gocah Pahlawan as the first king. The second king, Marhum Kesawan was enthroned in 1669 and then moved the capital to the present location of Medan (the name "Kesawan" is originated from his name). The location of the capital of Deli kingdom was moved several times (to Pulo Brayan, then to Labuhan Deli) before finally settled down in the present location of Maimoon Palace in 1888 by the 9th ruler, Sultan Ma'mum Al Rasyid Perkasa Alamsyah.”

Further, The 1911 Editon Encyclopedia Love to Knowth wrote: “It attained its climax of power in the time of Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636), under whom the subject coast extended from Aru opposite Malacca round by the north to Benkulen on the west coast, a sea-board of not less than noo miles; and besides this, the king's supremacy was owned by the large island of Nias, and by the continental Malay states of Johor, Pahang, Kedah and Perak.

The chief attraction of Achin to traders in the i;th century must have been gold. No place in the East, unless Japan, was so abundantly supplied with gold. The great-repute of Achin as a place of trade is shown by the fact that to this port the first Dutch (1599) and first English (1602) commercial ventures to the Indies were directed. Sir James Lancaster, the English commodore, carried letters from Queen Elizabeth to the king of Achin, and was well received by the prince then reigning, Alauddin Shah. Another exchange of letters took place between King James I. and Iskandar Muda in 1613. But native caprice and jealousy of the growing force of the European nations in these seas, and the rivalries between those nations themselves, were destructive of sound trade; and the English factory, though several times set up, was never long maintained. The French made one great effort (1621) to establish relations with Achin, but nothing came of it. Still the foreign trade of Achin, though subject to interruptions, was important. William Dampier (c. 1688) and others speak of the number of foreign merchants settled thereEnglish, Dutch, Danes, Portuguese, Chinese, &c. Dampier says the anchorage was rarely without ten or fifteen sail of different nations, bringing vast quantities of rice, as well as silks, chintzes, muslins and opium. Besides the Chinese merchants settled at Achin, others used to come annually with the junks, ten or twelve in number, which arrived in June. A regular fair was then established, which lasted two months, and was known as the China camp, a great resort of foreigners.

Hostilities with the Portuguese began from the time of the first independent king of Achin; and they had little remission till the power of Portugal fell with the loss of Malacca (1641). Not less than ten times before that event were armaments despatched from Achin to reduce Malacca, and more than once its garrison was hard pressed. One of these armadas, equipped by Iskandar Muda in 1615, gives an idea of the king's resources. It consisted of 500 sail, of which 250 were galleys, and among these a hundred were greater than any then used in Europe. Sixty thousand men were embarked.

On the death of Iskandar's successor in 1641, the widow was placed on the throne; and as a female reign favored the oligarchical tendencies of the Malay chiefs, three more queens were allowed to reign successively. In 1699 the Arab or fanatical party suppressed female government, and put a chief of Arab blood on the throne. The remaining history of Achin was one of rapid decay.”

The other source, wrote: “Hikayat Aceh, the panegyric chronicle of the sultan of Aceh Iskandar Muda (1607-1636), is quite untypical in the context of traditional Malay historiography. This allowed Teuku Iskandar to assume that it had followed the pattern of Akbar-nama (around 1602), the panegyric chronicle of the Mughal emperor Akbar. The present author, however, believes that structurally Hikayat Aceh is more similar to another work of the Mughal era, Malfuzat-i Timuri (the 'Autobiography of Timur [Tamerlane]'), which was presented to the emperor Shah Jahan (1628-1637). While studying the question whether Malfuzat-i Timuri may have been a 'prototype' of Hikayat Aceh, the author has come to the conclusion that there are no serious grounds for the generally accepted dating of this chronicle back to the reigning period of Iskandar Muda. What we can state with due certainty is only the fact that Hikayat Aceh was composed after Iskandar Muda's enthronement in 1607 and before the late 17th century, when this work became known to the Dutch missionary Leidekker. Some internal evidence seems to allow us to limit this long span of time to the period between the early 1630s and the late 17th century.”

The last, The Price Of Freedom The Unfinished diary of Tengku Hasan di Tiro. (27 Desember, 1978), wrote: “Iskandar Muda was a military genius, a great stateman, law-giver, all at once. Iskandar Muda is a great Achehnese leader, Po Teuh Meureuhom. This posthumous name given him by our people is so meaningful. It means “Our Beloved Late Lord”, denoting such love, respect, intimacy and immediacy, as if he is still alive among us to day, although he was dead in 1636. This is immortality. His monuments are not pyramids, but the throbbing hearts of his people, from generations to generations. This is the feeling that I want you to share about him. He is not dead. He still alive among us today. We walk under his shadow. He is our witness. We need a man like him, the standard-bear of our history, against whom we must measure ourselves. I want you to partake some of his ago. Then you will not salute the Javamen anymore. You have to be a free man in your heart first, before you can be free in your home. You have to free your home first before you can free your country. But when you have freed your heart, you can free your home, and you can alsa freeyour country. This is the prosess that we are instigating in Acheh today. If Iskandar Muda were alive today, this ias what he would have done, and he would be with you today, right here in Punteuët Hill.

There is an Achehnese proverb that said:

Adat bak Po teuh Meureuhom,

Hukom bak Sjiah Kuala.

It means “ Our Customary Laws cam from our Beloved Late Lord, our Religious Laws cam from Sjiah Kuala”. Sjiah Kuala was a great Islamic scholar and Chief Justice of Iskandar Muda. This is the immediate fount of Achehnese legal system which is based on Islam. It is the foundation of our stare decicis.”

Iskandar Thani

A Dutch engraver's image of the funeral of Iskandar Thani in 1641

Having killed potential male heirs,Iskandar Muda was succeeded by his son-in-law, a pious prince of Pahang known as Iskandar Thani (1637-41). Under him and his widow Taj al-Alam Aceh appears to have been at its most peaceful and prosperous, ruled by law rather than royal caprice. Iskandar Thani is renowned especially as the patron of the great orthodox ulama Nurud-din ar-Raniri, who encouraged him to impose a shari'a system of law, and to execute Muslims he regarded as heretics as well as Portuguese captives who declined to accept Islam. On the other hand the royal garden (Taman Ghairah) built by Iskandar Thani, of which the surviving artificial mountain (gunungan ) was a feature, embodied elements not only of Islamic mysticism but of Hindu symbolism.

After his patron's death, Raniri was chased from Aceh by a mob seeking revenge for his harsh legalism. Relentless Dutch pressure had succeeded by 1670 in detaching from Acehnese authority both the pepper producing west coast of Sumatra (Padang, Pariaman and Tiku), and the tin producing areas Iskandar Muda had conquered on the Malayan Peninsula. Under the later queens, pressures rose for a style of kingship both more Acehnese and more Islamic. The restoration of male rule in 1699 inaugurated a painful time for Aceh, with the port in decline and civil war endemic.

The royal procession of Sultan Iskandar Thani to the Aceh mosque, for the feast of Idul Adh in 1637, after a sketch by Peter Mundy.

At the front of the procession are elephants with 'sithes' attached to their tusks, and bearing soldiers with pikes. Behind, elephants carry soldiers with cannon, and others carry archers. These are followed by more elephants, and a squad of soldiers with guns, several men on horseback, and a guard of eunuchs on horses. These flank horsemen carrying pikes from which flags flutter. The sultan, who is leaving his palace, seated in a litter, borne by an elephant and is preceded by fan and umbrella bearers.presided

1675-1677 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultana Naqiat ud-din Nur ul-'Alam Shah, Sultana of Aceh Dar us-Salam

Nurul Alam Nakiyatuddin

Granddaughter of Sultan 'Ali Mughayat II Ri'ayat Shah, who ruled 1604-07, and married Laksamana 'Abdu'r Rahman bin Zainal Abidin, Orang Kaya Kaya Maharaja Lela Melayu, son of Zainal Abidin bin Daim Mansur, Tengku of Ribee. Perhaps mother of Sultan 'Ala ud-din Ahmad Shah Johan Badr Berdaulat, but she was succeeded by Sultana Zaqiyat. Her Throne-name Naqiat ud-din Nur ul-'Alam Shah means Light of the world, Purity of the Faith. (d. 1677)


Muslim kingdom in northern Sumatra. Main center of Islamic expansion in Southeast Asia in the early seventeenth century, it declined after the Dutch seized Malacca from Portugal in 1641. (p. 541)


Ali (I) Mughayat Shah 1496-1528. Father of:
Salah ud Din 1528-1537. Brother of:
Ala ud Din (I) al Qahhar 1537-1568. Father of:
Husain Ali Riayat Shah 1568-1575. Father of:
Sultan Muda 1575,
Sri Alam 1575-1576. Son of Ala ud Din (I) al Qahhar,
Zainal Abidin 1576-1577. Grandson of Ala ud Din (I) al Qahhar,
Ala ud Din (II) Mansur Shah 1577-c1589. Brother of Ahmad Taj ud Din Shah, Sultan of Perak,
Sultan Buyong c1589-1596,
Ala ud Din (III) Riayat Shah 1596-1604. Grandson (via son) of a brother of the father of 1st Sultan Ali (I) Mughayat Shah and father of:
Ali (II) Riayat Shah 1604-1607,
Iskandar (I) Shah 1607-1636. Granson (via daughter) of Ala ud Din Riayat Shah,
Iskandar (II) Thani Ala ud Din Mughayat Shah 1636-1641. Son of Ahmad Shah II, Sultan of Pahang,
Safiyat ud Din Taj ul Alam 1641-1675. Daughter of Iskandar (I) Shah and widow of Iskandar (II) Thani Ala ud Din Mughayat Shah,
Naqiyat ud Din Nur ul Alam 1675-1678,
Zaqiyat ud Din Inayat Shah 1678-1688,
Kamalat Shah Zinat ud Din 1688-1699,
Badr ul Alam Sharif Hashim Jamal ud Din 1699-1702,
Perkara Alam Sharif Lamtui 1702-1703,
Jamal ul Alam Badr ul Munir 1703-1726,
Jawhar ul Alam Amin ud Din 1726,
Shams ul Alam 1726-1727,
Ala ud Din (IV) Ahmad Shah 1727-1735,
Ala ud Din (V) Shah Johan 1735-1760,
Mahmud Shah (I) 1760-1781,
Badr ud Din 1764-1785,
Sulayman Shah (I) 1775-1781,
Ala ud Din (VI) Muhammad 1781-1795,
Ala ud Din (VII) Jawhar ul Alam 1795-1815 and 1818-1824,
Sharif Saif ul Alam 1815-1818,
Muhammad (I) Shah 1824-1838,
Sulayman Shah (II) 1838-1857,
Mansur Shah 1857-1870,
Mahmud Shah (II) 1870-1874,
Muhammad (II) Daud Shah 1874-1903

ACHEH, ACHIN or ATJEH, SUMATRA The Sultanate of Achin or Atjeh was founded at the end of the 15th century. A powerful Islamic state in the 16th and 17th centuries, Achin contested control of the Malacca Straits with the Portuguese and the Dutch. The Dutch colonial power annexed the Sultanate in 1874 and local resistance stopped in 1904.
The above stamp is known as"Cap Sikureuëng " belong to the Sultanate of Acheh.

1496-1528 Ali (I) Mughayat Shah
1528-1537 Salah ud Din
1537-1568 Ala ud Din (I) al Qahhar
1568-1575 Husain Ali Riayat Shah
1575 Sultan Muda
1575-1576 Sri Alam Son of Ala ud Din (I) al Qahhar,
1576-1577 Zain ul Abidin Grandson of Ala ud Din (I) al Qahhar,
1577-1589 Ala ud Din (II) Mansur Shah Brother of Ahmad Taj ud Din Shah, Sultan of Perak
1589-1596 Sultan Buyong
1596-1604 Ala ud Din (III) Riayat Shah Grandson (via son) of a brother of the father of 1st Sultan Ali (I) Mughayat Shah and father of
1604-1607 Ali (II) Riayat Shah
1607-1636 Iskandar (I) Shah Granson (via daughter) of Ala ud Din Riayat Shah,
1636-1641 Iskandar (II) Thani Ala ud Din Mughayat Shah Son of Ahmad Shah II, Sultan of Pahang,
1641-1675 Safiyat ud Din Taj ul Alam Daughter of Iskandar (I) Shah and widow of Iskandar (II) Thani Ala ud Din Mughayat Shah,
1675-1678 Naqiyat ud Din Nur ul Alam
1678-1688 Zaqiyat ud Din Inayat Shah
1688-1699 Kamalat Shah Zinat ud Din
1699-1702 Badr ul Alam Sharif Hashim Jamal ud Din
1702-1703 Perkara Alam Sharif Lamtui
1703-1726 Jamal ul Alam Badr ul Munir
1726 Jawhar ul Alam Amin ud Din
1726-1727 Shams ul Alam
1727-1735 Ala ud Din (IV) Ahmad Shah
1735-1760 Ala ud Din (V) Shah Jahan
1760-1781 Mahmud Shah (I)
1764-1785 Badr ud Din
1775-1781 Sulayman Shah (I)
1781-1795 Ala ud Din (VI) Muhammad
1795-1815 Ala ud Din (VII) Jawhar ul Alam
1815-1818 Sharif Saif ul Alam
1818-1824 Ala ud Din (VII) Jawhar ul Alam
1824-1838 Muhammad (I) Shah
1838-1857 Sulayman Shah (II)
1857-1870 Mansur Shah
1870-1874 Mahmud Shah (II)
1874-1903 Muhammad (II) Daud Shah
Tjap Sikureuëng (Traditional symbol of Acheh Ruler)
Rulers of Aceh (1496 - 1903)


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