Friday, March 10, 2006

History of Atjeh By John M. Echols



By John M. Echols

Students of Indonesia often make the statement that inadequate bibliographical assistance is a serious obstacle to Indonesian scholarship. Indonesia has lacked a truly national bibliography in spite of the existence of unofficial Dutch compilations from 1619 to 1942 and from 1945 to 1954 and of Gunung Agungfs annual volumes from 1955 through 1960.* So far, neither the private firm of Gunung Agung nor the National Bibliographical Office (Kantor Bibliografi Nasional), both in Djakarta, with their monthly or quarterly listings, has succeeded in providing more than a fair amount of bibliographic coverage of the publishing output in Indonesia in spite of their efforts to do so* Lack of book distribution channels, absence of a law with teeth requiring deposit of several copies with a designated library, and paucitv of information regarding the appearance of publications are among the major factors which have made the task of compiling a bibliography on Indonesia or on any aspect of it so difficult, especially since 1945,

In the light of the above, we thought that it might be useful to attempt a brief bibliographic essay on the important but somewhat neglected northernmost province in Sumatra, Atjeh (Achin), as reflected in the holdings in the Cornell University Library (hereafter CUD. These holdings have not been selected because they are unique, they are not, but rather because we have been able to obtain recent acquisitions on this area.It is our hope that this and similar surveys prepared from time to time may be of interest and value to students and scholars on Indonesia* This does not attempt to be an exhaustive listing of holdings, nor does it include all general works which treat of Indonesia or even of Sumatra.

No bibliography which deals specifically with Atjeh has appeared, as far as we know. Such data as does exist is scattered in other bibliographies, or, worse yet, has not so far been listed in any bibliography. Graham Irwin's article in AnIntroduction to Indonesian Historiography (1965) lists the major Dutch bibliographical and resource aids for the study of Indonesia, including Atjeh.

In preparing this essay we made surveys of several well known bibliographies on Indonesia. One of these, Kennedy (1955),


* See Patrick Wilson, "A Survey of Bibliographies on Southeast Asia," Journal of Asian studies 18 (May 1959), 365-76.

which is anthropologically oriented, contains a special section on "Sumatra-Atjehnese" (pp. 135-43) in which he lists 28 monographs in the Dutch language. Of these CUL has 24. Of the 18 in other Western languages, CUL has 14. Voorhoeve (1955), which is concerned primarily with language and literature, lists 14 monograph titles dealing with the Atjehnese language. CUL has 9 of them. Under the subject heading "Achin" in the CUL dictionary catalog, we counted 146 titles as follows: history (84), politics and government (8), Atjeh general (39) and the remainder scattered among description and travel, ethnology, social life and customs, etc. The bulk of these are in Dutch (111), Indonesian (24), English (8), and one each in French, German, and Javanese. In addition, some titles will be found under the heading "Sumatra" and under a variety of subject headings. The latter are generally difficult to ferret out and locating them may often be fortuitous.Perhaps a useful arrangement for a discussion of Cornell'sholdings would be according to subject.


A most useful work on Atjeh is the North Sumatra volume in the Ministry of Information series: Indonesia. KementerianPenerangan. Repub1i k Indonesia. v. 4: Propinsi Sumatra Utara. Djakarta, 1954. Older general accounts are Bataviaasch Handelsblad. Atjeh,beschouwingen. Batavia, 1878 and W. C. Nieuwenhuyzen, Atjehsche omtrekken. fs Gravenhage, 1887, A fairly recent work in Indonesian is Insider [pseud.] Atjeh sepintas lalu. Djakarta, 1950, and H. M. Zainuddin, Djeumpa Atjeh Medan [1958]. A small orientation pamphlet is Kalau Anda bertugas di Atjeh, [Medan?] Penerangan Komando Daerah Militer I Iskandarmuda [196-?].


The most useful and accessible writing on sources for the history of Atjeh will be found in articles by Hoesein Djajadiningrat, John Bastin and J. C. Bottoms in An Introduction to Indonesian historiography (1965). Scattered references will also be found in other articles in this volume. Of the titles mentioned there from earlier times CUL has G. W. J. Drewes and P. Voorhoeve, eds. Adat Atjeh (1958) and Teuku Iskandar, ed. De Hikajat Atjeh I before 1958). CUL possesses no manuscripts and only a very small amounô of archival materß-al on microfilm, which will be discussed later.

Early Atjehnese trade and commerce are treated in a number of general studies, perhaps the most recent being M. A. P. Meilink-Roelofsz, Asian trade and European influence in the Indonesian Archipelago between 1500 and about 1630 (1962).

More specific studies include the dissertation of Arun Das Gupta , Acheh in Indonesian trade and politics » 160Q-1641 . Cornell University , 1961 , and his article vAcheh in the seventeenth century Asia trade," Bengal past and present 81 (1962),37-49. These two studies fall within the scope of economic history as do the two earlier works by J. Langhout, The economic conquest of Acheen by the Dutch (1924) and his Vijftig jaren economische staatkunde in AtjeH ... (1923). The little archival material we spoke of earlier treats of 17th century Atjeh and was procured by Das Gupta as a result of his dissertation research in the Dutch archives .

Of the above-mentioned eighty-four titles on the history of the area to be found in CUL forty-one deal with the Atjeh War. Among these CUL holds all but two (CUL does not have du Croo, Marechaussee in Atjeh and has only one volume of Colijn, Politiek ºfreleid en bestuurszprg in de Buitengewesten) listed in Coolhaas (1960) , pip. lèÝ-1^7. Out, has also acquired the series entitled Geschriften over Atjeh, 13 vols , most of which deal with some aspect of the Atjeh War* One of these volumes, however, is Atjeh en Qnderhoorigheden (Residency).

Ambtelijke Boekeri j , Banda Atjeh. Catalogusder Ambtelijke Boekerij van het Gewestelijke Bureau '^âyXpetaajdj_a~ Koeta-Radja 1915, a useful list of "holdings at the district office in Kutaradja at that time. An interesting volume on the Atjeh War is Hasan Muhammad Tiro, Perang Atjeh, 1873 M-1927M.

Jogja [1948]. Since certain Dutch personalities played a key role in 19th century Atjehnese history, it may be noted that CUL has an even dozen titles concerned with the role of J. B. van Heutsz, five by or about G. C. E. van Daalen and eight by or about Jan van Swieten, as well as Karel van der Heijden's Memorie . fs-Gravenhage , 1882, W. Brouwer, Karel van der Heijden (1889?), and M. H. du Croo, Generaal Swart , paci f Ãcat or van At j^eh (19H3). CUL possesses a curiosity, W. JV Philips, Penjoeratan pekerdja-an perang di negeri Atjeh (187-?), fromthis period in Atjeh's Kistory.

Among biographies of important Indonesian personalities in Atjeh's earlier history CUL has two dealing with Iskandar Muda: M. Junus Djamil, Gadjah Putih Iskandar Muda Kutaradja (19 59), and H. M. Zainuddin, "Singa Atjehvr; bio'grafi Seri Sulthan Iskandar Muda Medan"ji 1Ú5V. hazll has written biographies of ºfeuku Umar and Tjut Nja Din in Teku Umar dan T jut Nja Din, sepasang pahlawan .perang Atjeh. &j ak ar t a , 19 52.feungku Tjhi di Tiro is "the subject of a biography by Ismail Jafkub first published during the Japanese period as Teungkoe Tjhi di Tiro.' Tjetakan I. [Medan?] 2605 (1945). In 1952 the s ame aut horissueda study on Teungku Tjhi di Tiro under the Tengku Chik di Tiro (Muhammad Saman) dalam perang Atjeh(1881-1891). Djakarta (1952). "CUL possesses a number of books and pamphlets , almost all in Indonesian, on the postwar rebellion and disturbances in Atjeh, and

on Daõd Beureueh. These are Revolusi Desember * 45 di Atjeh,atau pembasmian pengchianat Tanah' Air In. p. J Pemerinta'h R. I.Daerah Atjeh LI949J Indonesia* " Perdana Menteri. Keterangandan djawaban pemerintah tentang peristiwa Daud Beureueh.Djakarta. [19531;Indonesia.Kementerian PeneranganY BagianDokumentasi. Kronik ... Sekitar peristiwa Teungku DaudBeureáeh (no. 20). Djakarta, 1954 Dada Meuraxa, Lintasansedjaran* perdjoangan rakjat di Atjeh. Atjeh daerah modal *Republik Indonesia.Medan L1952J; Dada Meuraxa, Atjeh 1000tahun dan peristiwa Teungku Daud Beureueh.cs* Me<5an Ll'è'ä'^ J;Ustaz Àeungku hadjÀ All, kartosuwirjo Dawood-Beureueh akan menegakkan negara Islam? [Me dan J 1955 SV M Amin /Disekitar peristiwa berdarah di Atjeh Djakarta [1956?]; Tk. AlibasjahTalsya, Sedjarah dan dokumen-dokumen pemberontakan di Atjeh.Djakarta L1J55?J; T. A. Hasan, Rahasia pemberontakan Atjeh dan kegagalan politik Mr. Sv M. Amin' "oieÀú A. tf. "Üe'Ãaing'gangL p s e u d.J Kut arad j a, 1956 Saleh, Hasan. Revolusi Islam diIndonesia. Darussalam, 1956; Dada Meuraxa, Peristiwa berdarahdi Atjeh Medan [1956]; Dewan Repolusi NBA. Komuniken.1-2 Atjeh Besar, 1959. Abdullah Arifr Disekitar peristiwa pengchi anat Tjoembok. Koeta radja (1946) Mutyara peristiwa At jeh Bireuen (1946); Hasan Muhammad Tiro, Demokrasi di Indonesia Atjeh, 1958.

To conclude the section on history the following worksin Indonesian will be found in CUL: Raden Sastrawiria,Sedjarah Atjeh. Bandung [1954]; Mohamad Said, Atjeh sep andjang abad. L Me dan?] 1961, vol. I; H. M. Zainuddin, far Tarich Atjeh dan Nusantara. Medan, 1961, vol. I.


The standard works and atlases on the geography of Indonesiaare available in CUL. CUL also possesses two elementaryschool textbooks on the geography of Atjeh: Adjib, Inti ilmubumi Propinsi Atjeh. Medan, 1957, and Ad jib dan Ibnuras jid,Inti ilmu bumß Kabupaten Atjeh Timuruntuk sekolah rakjat. Medan, 1957.


Two pamphlets on Islam are Teungku Ismail Jakub, Risalah bertebarnja bendera Islam di Tanah Atjeh. [Blangdjroeen, 1940]and Hadji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah CHamka), Sedjarah Islamdi Sumatera. Medan, [1950],


The significant monographs and articles on this subject asit relates to the Atjehnese will be found in Kennedy (1955).CUL also possesses Dada Meuraxa, Sekitar suku Melaju, Batak,

Atjeh dan keradjaan Deli,Medan [1956].

Language and Linguistics

An earlier statement in which a comparison is made betweenVoorhoevefs bibliography of Atjehnese language and CUL'sholdings, shows that we have most of the items he lists. Inaddition CUL has H. A. N, Catenius, Poee gata basa Atjeh?(Spreekt gij Atjehsch?) Breda, 1888, and the dissertationby Jesse Otto Sawyer, Achinese historical phonology. Berkeley,University of California,1959.The amount of monographicmaterial on the Atjehnese language is regrettably small.Voorhoeve lists the significant books and articles which hadanpeared as of 1955„

Japanese Period (1942-45)

So far one study of Atjeh in this period has been published; it is A. J. Piekaar, Atjeh en de oorlog met Japan. fs-Gravenhage,1949.

Government Documents

Several were listed in connection with Daud Beureuehand the rebellion. In addition to these, CUL also has Sumatra,Komisariat Pemerintah Pusat. Himpunan, peraturan? komisariat pemerintah pusat di Sumatera. Terhimpun oleh KoesVodlprodjo.
Djakarta [1949?] Sumatra (Province) Ordinances, etc. Peraturan gadji pegawai negara Propinsi Sumatera, 1946 (P.G.S (1946).Djakarta-Raja [1946?];Indonesia.Kementerian Pertanian. Pusat Djawatan Pertanian Rakjat. Penindjauan penUDangunan j^ertanian Sumatra. Djakarta, 1953; Sumatra. Daerah Istimewa Atjeh.
Lapuran I960. Kutaradja, 1961; Dutch East Indies. Laws,statutes, etc. Zelfbestuursverordeningen Atjeh en Onderhoorigheden. Wertevreden,1930.(Mededee1ingen van de Afd. Bestuurszaken der Buitengewesten van het Dept. van BinnenlandschBestuur. Ser. A, 9). Also a booklet entitled BungKarno dan Rakjat Atjeh. Kutaradja, Panitia Persiapan PendirianUniversitas Negeð Sjiah Kuala [1961].


In the field of economics and business history CUL holdsseveral of the annual reports of Kutaradja, Sumatra. Handelsvereeniging. Jaarverslag. Koeta-Radja. 1924-32, 1934, 1936,as well as extensive holdings of postwar statistical reportsfrom the Biro Pusat Statistik in Djakarta. Some of these provideinformation on Atjeh.


CUL has recently acquired two monographs on the Universityat Darussalam which is located on a former plantationseveral miles outside the capital Banda Atjeh (formerlyKutaradja). These are Darussalam dan Hari Pendidikan Kutaradja, 1961 and Darussaiam.Banda Atfeh '["1963].

Newspapers and Periodicals

CUL's holdings of serials from Atjeh are sparse indeed. The only run is that of the postwar newspaper Pantja tjita published in Banda Atjeh* CUL possesses no periodical fromthe area and only one almanac, Almanak Umum 1959* Kutaradja,1958.

Serials from Atjeh constitute a major gap in our holdings,but it is our guess that comparatively few have ever appearedAny information to the contrary would be most welcome

*Materials in the Atjehnese Language

CUL has been able to obtain approximately forty titlesin Atjehnese, all published since 1949* The bulk of these are hikajats, nineteen to be exact, and among them are Kissah Indra Budiman* Rev. by Abu Zaim (pseud, of Col. Hoesein Jussuf). 3 v. Hikajat Radja Istambooy * Comp. by T. Radja Mahmud; M. Amin,Sedjarah NabiIbrahim; Hikajat Radja Djeumpa;Hikajat Hasan Husein. *4 v.; Abdullah Arif, hikajat prrang Sabil.U v.(in Arabic script). Fiction with a moral is also represented in the collection: Sjech Rih Krueng Raja, Penoh Harapan, his Bungong Rampoe, and his Nasib. Putos Harapan, 3v. Religious and moral works comprise five of the titles. Examples are Sjech Rasjid Tjut, Peunadjoh Mangat and M. Djuneid, Tjitjem Nuri. The latter is the story of a parrot in Mohammad's tßrne. Historical fiction is represented by Abdullah Arif, Nasib Atjeh. 3 v. (1953-61), which treats of the rebellion and SjecK Rih Kruen Raja, Tjut Mutia: Panglima putri Atjeh, which deals with the Atjeh War. Several are prewar elementary school textbooks in Atjehnese: L. de Vries, Lhee Saboh Nang (1932); Abu Bakar ngon Muhammad Saleh, Kitab beuet keu "aneu miet njang ban djeuet beuet haraih, Bidjeh II (1929) and their Bidjeh; kitab beuet keu aneuk mie't njang ban meuroenoe. 3 v. (1941) Mohamad Dj'am geuÀa 'Sut'an IP'amenan, " Batjuet sapeue; kitab beuet keu aneu miet (1911).

Others of a miscellaneous nature in the local language are Bung Sof, Kissah bungong situngkoi which has to do with the IPTR (Ikatan Peladjar Àanah Rentjong) convention in Medan and Abdullah Arif, Panton Atjeh. Kutaradja, 1958. 3 vols.
Advice for young and old.Also several in Indonesian, i.e.

Iljas Sutan Pamenan, Rentjong Atjeh di tangan wan ita, Djakarta, 1959, history; Mutyara, Leburnja Keraton Atjeh V Kutaradja, 1960; and a literacy pamphlet Sekitar PBH.

Other items in CUL are J. F. D. Bruinsma, De verovering van Atjehjs groote missigit Sneek, 1889; Hugh à. Clifford,Prisoners of the forest. New York, 1929, a novel laid in Atjeh; A. Rahman, "Sjair puteri hidjau (Suatu tjerita Jang benar terdjadi di Tanah Deli").Djakarta, 1955. Atjehnese history in verse.

One of the purposes of this short survey of CUL's holdings on Atjeh is to elicit additional information about material concerning Atjeh and published in Atjeh. The obvious, but by no means the only, gaps in the holdings in the Wason Collection of the Cornell University Library on this region are newspapers, periodicals and government documents. From the little data available it would appear that the publishing industry in Atjeh is small, with Medan serving as the center for publishing in north Sumatra. The number of Atjehnese imprints in CUL is still quite small.

A series of comprehensive regional bibliographies for Indonesia would be a most welcome addition to our bibliographic resources on the area. Also highly desirable would be subject bibliographies on government, economics, history, demography, etc. Perhaps our Indonesian colleagues will undertake some of these. They are indispensable aids to scholarship*


Coolhaas, W. Ph. 1960. A Critical survey of studies on Dutch colonial history. fs-Gravenhage, Ni]hoff.

Kennedy, Raymond. 1955. Bibliography of Indonesian peoples and cultures. Rev. ed Editors: Yhomas W. Maretzi and H. Th Fischer. New Haven, Conn., Southeast Asia Studies, Yale University. 2 v.

Soedjatmoko et al 1965. An Introduction to Indonesian historiography.Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell University Press.

Voorhoeve, P. 1955. Critical survey of studies on the languages of Sumatra" 's-Gravenhage, M. Nijhoff. (Koninkiú' jk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Bibl. ser* 1).


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